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References

1 Commons journals, vol. 29 (1761-1764), p.409.
2 3 Geo. III c.34.
3 A. H. Dodd, 'The Roads of North Wales, 1750-1850,' Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1925, p.131.
4 This mileage has been calculated from the roads listed in the turnpike trusts' Acts of Parliament, but excludes those roads which appear - from the evidence of diaries, etc. kept by contemporary tourists, the 1794 Reports prepared for the Board of Agriculture, the minute books of various trusts, and the Report of the 1844 (Rebecca) Commissioners never to have been taken over by the trusts.
5 5 Geo. III c.76.
6 For a more detailed discussion of each of these trusts, vide David Williams,The Rebecca Riots (Cardiff, 1955), chapt. 6.
7 What does appear to have been of greater concern, in many instances, was that private property should be spared when a round-about way over waste uplands presented itself vide Walter Davies, General View of the Agriculture and Domestic Economy of South Wales, 1814, vol. ii, pp. 369-370. The only attempt which appears to have been made before the end of the 18th century to avoid steep gradients was by the Main Trust, whose trustees widened the road along Cwm Dwr during the 1780's so as to present the traveller with a much superior alternative to that across Trecastle Mountain.
8 Quoted in S. and B. Webb, The Story of the King's Highway, 1915, p.126.
9 J. Clark, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Brecknock, 1794, p.29; vide also Charles Hassall, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Carmarthen, 1794, pp.46-47.
10 Walter Davies, op. cit., vol. ii, pp.372-373.
11 Mrs. Morgan, A Tour to Milford Haven in the year 1791, (1795), pp.120-121.
12 J. Clark, op. cit., p.53.
13 Webbs, O. cit., p.132.
14 Walter Davies, op. cit., vol. ii, pp.381-382.
15 Webbs, op. cit., pp.135-138; W. T. Jackman, The Development of Transportation in Modern England, (1916), pp.239-241.
16 The figures are taken from the Commons Journals for the years of the renewal Acts.
17 This figure is taken from the Commons Journals for the year 1785, vol. 40, p.552, as the petition for the renewal Act was first presented in that year.
18 Commission of Inquiry for South Wales, 1844, Evidence, pp.14, 26, 96; Walter Davies, op. cit., vol. ii, pp.377-378.
19 Sir Thomas Stepney to William Clayton, M.P., London, 21 Feb. 1765, Cardiff Central Library, MS. 4833.
20 Kidwelly Trust Interest Books, T.T./17-20, at Carm. Record Office.
21 The figures are taken from the trust's Register of Tallies, 1767-1840, T.T./31, at Carm. Record Office. Note, however, that the table gives the dates of the issue of tallies. Such dates do not necessarily correspond with the dates on which the money was subscribed, as very often a considerable time lapsed between the date of the subscription and the issue of the tally.
22 T.T./29, at Carm. Record Office.
23 Llandeilo Rwnws Bridge Trust Minute Book, 1784-1805, T.T./25, at Carm. Record Office.
24 T.T./Box 6/Bundle 5, at Carm. Record Office; Cawdor Collection, 2/128, at Carm. Record Office. Unpaid interest amounting to 2,452 upon a tally of 1,654 was due to Earl Cawdor himself; Commission of Inquiry for South Wales, 1844, Evidence, p.46.
25 Parliamentary Papers, 1836 (2), xlvii, p.297.
26 D.T.M. Jones, MSS. 8803, 8880, 8966, 8989, 9089, 9207, 9234, 9307, and 9315, at N.L.W.
27 Llandeilo Rwnws Bridge Trust Minute Book, 1806-1845, T.T./26, at Carm. Record Office.
28 Kidwelly Trust Interest Books, 1779-1844, T.T./17-20, at Carm. Record Office.
29 In this instance, Half Toll applied to "Lime to be used for manure only."
30 Webbs, op. cit., p.138; David Williams, op. cit., pp.175-176.
31 Llandeilo Rwnws Bridge Trust Minute Book, 1784-1805, T.T./25.
32 At the end of the 18th century, the Carmarthen and Lampeter Trust controlled 22 miles of road, the Llandovery and Lampeter 18 miles, and the Llandeilo Rwnws Bridge 1 mile.
33 The road from Betws to the Glamorgan boundary near Penlle'r Castell, although included in the 1765 Act of the Llandeilo and Llandybie Trust, does not appear to have been repaired in any way by the trust; whilst the trustees of the Three Commotts Trust appear to have neglected to repair no fewer than six roads included in their Act of 1792, and which were located in the mineral tracts of the Great Mountain and Llangendeirne areas.
34 2 & 3 Ph. and Mary, c.8.
35 These are kept at the Carm. Record Office. A complete run of these is available for the 19th century, with the exception of the minute book for the years 1813-1819, which cannot be traced.
36 The South Wales Association for the Improvement of Roads, Abstract of Proceedings taken from the Book of Resolutions, London, 1792, p.18 (Copy at the Royal Institution of South Wales, Swansea).
37 Records of the Court of Great Sessions, 4 Wales 742/1, 742/2, 742/3, 748/4, 752/1, 752/4, at N.L.W.
38 A hamlet in the parish of Llangadog was actually fined 1,000 in 1825 for neglecting to repair 7 miles of the Llandovery and Llangadog Trust's road across the Black Mountain vide Quarter Sessions Minute Book.
39 John Clark, op. cit., p.29.
40 Charles Hassall, op. cit., p.47.

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