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References

1 Christmas Evans, the Preacher of Wild Wales, London, 1881.
2 ibid., p. 23.
3 See 'The life and times of John Aubrey' in Oliver Lawson Dick Aubrey's Brief Lives, London, 1975, p. lxxxviii, where the author quotes from one of Aubrey's manuscripts: ". . . In Queen Elizabeth's time, one Penry of Wales, wrote a book called Martin-Mar-prelate. He was hanged for it. He was kin to my great-grandfather . . ."
4 Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme, John Aubrey, London: Folklore Society, 1881, pp. 35-36.
5 'The Sin-Eater', E. Sidney Hartland, Folk-Lore, Vol. III, 1892, pp. 145-147.
6 The Golden Bough, The Scapegoat, J. G Frazer, London, 1913, pp. 42-47.
7 Archaeologia Cambrensis, 2nd series, Vol. III, pp. 330-332.
8 ibid., p. 331.
9 Hanes Plwyf Llandybie, Gomer M. Roberts, Cardiff, 1939, p, 271.
10 ". . . Byddai rhai ohonynt bob nos Sadwrn ar l gorffen gwerthu eu cig, yn mynd i'r tafarndai, ac yn yfed yno hyd fore'r Saboth. Tystiai amryw hen bobl oedd yn ddiweddar yn fyw, ei bod yn berygl bywyd i gerdded ystrydoedd y dref a'r pentrefi cyfagos ar 'nos Sadwrn y cyfrif', am y byddai heidiau o ddihirod meddw a chreulon yn wastad yn barod i ymosod ar y neb a i yn agos atynt . . ." Hanes Eglwysi Annibynnol Cynnru, J. Thomas, & T. Rees, Liverpool, 1872, Vol. II, p. 40.
11 "Gwŷr Cwmaman oll ac un / Y diawl a'ch pia bob yr un. / Os na wnewch droi, a throi yn glau./Fe ddaw i'ch hl chwibob yn ddau!" Y Thadau Annibynnol, ed, L. D. Jones (Llew Tegid), Caernarfon, 1900, Vol. II, p. 33.
12 'Hen Arferion Dyffryn Aman', Watcyn Wyn, Y Geninen, Vol. XX, 1902, pp. 142-143.
13 'Colofn Hanes a Hynafiaeth', ed Gomer M. Roberts, Amman Valley Chronicle, October 31, 1940.
14 'The Omnibus', ibid., November 27, 1924.
15 The Academy, November 13, 1875.
16 Carmarthenshire Notes, ed. Arthur Mee, Llanelli, 1890, Vol. I. p. 100.
17 Western Mail, September 16, 1875. Quoted in Welsh Folk Customs, Trefor M. Owen, Cardiff, 1968, p. 184.
18 British Goblins, Wirt Sikes, London, 1880, pp. 325-327.
19 Welsh Folklore and Folk Custom, T. Gwynn Jones, London, 1929, p. 214.
20 A similar passage occurs in a Welsh language novel by the same author, Ifor Owain; Nofel am Gymru yn Amser Cromwell, Wrexham, 1911, p. 129.
21 op. cit., p. 241.
22 Cf. Sidney Hartland, op. cit., p. 152.
23 Transactions of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society, Vol. 20, p. 85.
24 "Ardal unig, pell o'r byd ydoedd, ac ardaloedd o'r fath yw cynefin chwedl, coel, arfer a thraddodiad hen. Porthir dychymyg gan hen goelion, a glŷn arferion yn hir lle ni byddo anesmwytho ar hen fywyd cymdeithasol ardal". Rhamant a Rhyddid, J. Dyfnallt Owen, Aberystwyth, 1952, pp. 10-11.

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