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Portraits and Pictures in Old Carmarthenshire Houses

Wales Herald Extraordinary
County Archivist of Carmarthenshire

Readers will have noticed that detailed descriptions of pictures and other mural decorations were rarely given in inventories of the contents of houses in bygone days. Bare entries, such as "family portraits," "prints," "maps," merely excite our curiosity and leave us with feelings akin to frustration. So, it is a pleasant experience to come across manuscripts containing not only detailed descriptions of pictures, mainly portraits, in Welsh and English houses in the latter half of the seventeenth century, but also observations on the subjects, on the artists, their excellence and shortcomings.

These manuscripts, ten notebooks in all, form part of the muniments of the Stepney-Gulston family of Derwydd, lately deposited in the County Record Office. Their author was Joseph Gulston (1745—1786), the celebrated collector of books and prints, whose career has earned him a place in the Dictionary of National Biography. His father, also named Joseph, amassed a fortune as a financier and merchant, and represented Poole as Member of Parliament from 1741 until his death. The circumstances surrounding the marriage of Joseph Gulston pθre were sufficiently unusual to form the theme of an exciting novel that enjoyed a wide popularity towards the end of the last century. His wife, Mericas Silva, was the daughter of a Portuguese merchant, and a Roman Catholic. They married by stealth. The ceremony took place in the Fleet and a second celebration was performed by a Catholic priest, so that the knot was doubly and indubitably tied. Joseph, for whom fluctuations on the bourse and the harsh realities of eighteenth century politics held no terrors, lived in constant dread of a masterful and alarming sister, a formidable Anglican who would have strongly disapproved of such "mixed" marriage. Accordingly, the union was kept secret and the children brought up in the strictest concealment.1 The eldest son of the marriage, Joseph, received his education at Eton and Christ Church College, Oxford, and on his father's death in 1766 inherited £250,000 in the Funds, a Hertfordshire estate with an annual rental of £1,500, a residence at Ealing Grove, Middlesex, and a town house in Soho Square. He devoted his life to collecting books, prints, pictures, cartoons, etc., visiting private houses and public galleries to study and enjoy works of art, so that he became an acknowledged authority on these matters. Unfortunately, allied to these cultural interests, was a light-hearted extravagance, carelessness in money matters, and a physical indolence, which resulted in the dissipation of the fine fortune he had inherited. Like his father he entered Parliament, being elected for Poole in 1780, a seat he lost four years later "by neglecting to get out of bed till too late in the day to solicit the votes of five Quaker constituents."2 As a result of this lack of business acumen he found himself in serious difficulties, and in 1784 was obliged to sell the library he had assembled with discrimination, and two years later his magnificent collection of pictures consisting of 67,000 portraits, prints, and scenes, came under the hammer. Hopes that this would solve his more pressing problems were unrealised, for the literary and artistic treasures were sold at ludicrously low figures. He died on 16th July 1786, some four months after the sale.

Joseph Gulston's connection with Wales came with his marriage in 1768 to the talented Elizabeth Bridgetta, daughter of Sir Thomas Stepney, Baronet, whose family had held extensive estates in Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire since the middle of the sixteenth century, and descendant by the distaff of the Vaughans of Llanelly and Derwydd (cadets of Golden Grove) and also of the celebrated portrait painter Van Dyck.3 She was a noted beauty and an accomplished etcher, and enjoyed the distinction, unusual in one of her sex, of being the inventor of plated harness. If anything, she proved more extravagant than her husband whom she predeceased by four years. Nevertheless, the Welsh estates were protected by terms of entail, so that the descendants of these cultured spendthrifts the Gulstons and Stepney-Gulstons — were able to enjoy ample estates in South Wales, some of which are still in their possession.

The notebooks providing the data for this article were written during the period 1779—1785. Most of Gulston's visits concern royal palaces like St James's, Windsor, Hampton Court, and Buckingham House (as it was then called), great English seats like Blenheim, Marlborough and Woburn, town and country houses, castles, colleges, and churches. He found, by comparison, the Welsh houses to be inferior, both in design and content, to their English counterparts, and expresses contempt for several of them. Nevertheless, the information he has preserved makes it easy for us to forgive his spiky observations and abundant prejudices. Many of the inscriptions he copied from church memorials have since disappeared; great changes have taken place in the houses he saw, some have become ruinous and untenanted, or have passed to a succession of new owners, while the majority of the pictures he describes have suffered the fate of his own collection. Possessing acute powers of observation, and the instinct of a professional in knowing what points to look for in a portrait, he identified the subject, described features, posture, dress, and other details, named the artist, occasionally permitted himself a connoisseur's judgement — "bad," "very bad," "fine," "good," etc, and tells us in what rooms the portraits were hung. Such descriptions by an expert are as valuable as they are rare, and it is to be regretted that he did not extend his visits to more Welsh houses.

Included in the notebooks are the following mansions of Carmarthenshire interest — Aberglasney, Berllandywyll, Derwydd, Edwinsford, Golden Grove, Newton (Dynevor), Taliaris, and Tregib.

This house is in Llangathen parish. In medieval times it belonged to the family of the chieftain Llywelyn Foethus whose great-great-great-grandson, Sir William Thomas, knight, of Aberglasney, was High Sheriff of the county in 1540. From the Thomases the property passed to Bishop Rudd, Bishop of St Davids (1593—1614), who is said to have rebuilt the house. The house and estate, heavily mortgaged, came into the hands of the Hon Thomas Watson-Wentworth of Wentworth Woodhouse, who, early in the eighteenth century, sold it to Robert Dyer, father of the poet. The Dyers made extensive alterations to the residence, and it is that house which has substantially survived to our times. When Joseph Gulston called, the proprietor was William Herbert Dyer. This is what he wrote:

MS 3, fo 62. Aberglasney, 1783.

"The seat of William Dyer, Esq, Carmarthenshire. An old house with a large Hall. In the center is a Staircase which carry's you to a Chapel of which nothing now is remaining but the Pulpit which is old and curious. There is a terras round a court built on Stone Arches. It is close to Grongar Hill. The country is most beautiful. In the house are the following pictures -

  1. Mr Dyer, The Poet,4 painted by himself, in blue velvet, hand rests on a table, brown wig; very indifferent. He was brother to the grandfather of the present possessor.
  2. Mr Dyer, the elder brother of the Poet, down to the knees in a blue velvet coat, neckcloth twisted through the button hole.
  3. Mrs Dyer, the wife of the foregoing, sitting, a most beautiful woman, she was an heiress, daughter of Sir Archer Croft,5 the head is painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, but the neck, hand, and Drapery, are bad, by some of his people. This beautiful woman was very flighty, almost insane — the generation have suffered from this connextion.
  4. Four Children, small, W Lth,6 with a Dog of the foregoing.
  5. Mr Dyer, and 6. Mrs Dyer, the Grandfather and Grandmother, two postures — common, very indifferent.
  6. Sir Archer Croft, long wig, down to the knees, sitting. Father [_recte,_ brother] of the handsome Mrs Dyer. In yellow with a blue mantle.
  7. Mrs Philips of Coeadgain. bad. Mother of the late Member for Carmarthenshire.7
  8. One Unknown."

William Herbert Dyer, proprietor at this time, was High Sheriff of Carmarthenshire in 1776, and died without issue in 1821. He sold the estate in 1803 for £10,500 to Thomas Phillips, a surgeon in the East India Company, who, during 32 years service in India had contrived to amass an enormous fortune. Phillips also bought a good deal of the old furniture in the house. What happened to the Dyer portraits is not known.

Berllandywyll is situated on the southwestern slope below Llangathen church, with an extensive view over the vale of Tywi. It was the seat of the Lloyds, descended from Thomas Lloyd of Castell Hywel in Cardiganshire who had married Bridget daughter of Sir Henry Vaughan of Derwydd in Llandybie parish, Carmarthenshire. The last of the male line at Berllandywyll, David Lloyd, married in 1748 Magdalen daughter of David Lewis of Dolhaidd. David got into financial difficulties and sold Castell Hywel. When he died without issue in 1779, Berllandywyll passed to his sister's only child, Alice Gratiana Williams who married Richard Jones of Pantglas, a barrister and later Clerk of the Peace for Carmarthenshire, who took the name Richard Jones Llwyd. Financial difficulties beset the last owners, who being childless, and in view of certain financial considerations, they left the state to Charles Richard Vaughan, younger son of Golden Grove. Richard Jones Llwyd died without issue in 1799, and on the death of the widow in 1806 at the age of 65, the property passed to Lord Cawdor, as heir by devise of the Golden Grove family. Alice Gratiana is the lady referred to in Gulston's notes. He wrote as follows:

MS 3, fo 64. Berllandowill. c 1783

"Mrs Lloyd's. 3 miles from Llandilo. A very beautiful spot. On whose death this estate devolves to the second son of Mr Vaughan of Golden Grove.

  1. Evan's, a boy and a girl.8 Boy died young: Laetitia 70 unmarried. W.L. they were part of the issue by her first husband. Eleanor wife of Mr Lloyd of Langannock [Llangennech] who had issue one daughter who married Sir John Stepney, Grandfather of the present Sir John.
  2. Mrs Lloyd of Peterwell near Lampeter in Cardiganshire. She was a Miss Le Hoop.9 sitting, in white sattin.
  3. Mr John Lloyd of Peterwell, husband of the foregoing. In a brown velvet coat, white sattin waistcoat. he was bred to the Law and was the elder brother of [No 4].
  4. Sir Herbert Lloyd, in brown velvet, wig, etc. posture.
  5. Mr Daniel Evans of Peterwell, in a brown loose dress, very long wig, laced neckcloth.
  6. Mrs Lloyd of Peterwell, mother of Sir Herbert, married one of the Miss Evans, loose dress, long hair.
  7. Old Mr Walter Lloyd, Counsellor, father of Sir Herbert. In black gown and band, long wig, sitting in a chair, he was member for Cardiganshire.
  8. Mr Le Hoop, in brown velvet, sitting, a very long laced neckcloth, letter in his left hand.
  9. Sir Herbert Lloyd, the late, in red velvet, a miniature, W.L., about 3 feet high. Member for Cardiganshire.
  10. Mr Lloyd,10 in a very long wig, in a brown loose dress, striped waistcoat. There is a copy of this. He married one of the daughters of Sir Henry Vaughan.
  11. Sir Henry Vaughan of Derwith.11 buff waistcoat, breast-plate, plain turn over collar, large sleeves, his left hand leaning on a table, pistol in his right hand, red sash, short hair. This picture is very much damaged."

In MS 4. fo 19, he again mentioned the house -

"At Mrs Lloyd's of Berllandowill is a picture very much damaged of old Sir Henry Vaughan of Derwydd, half length, buff waistcoat, breast plate short, striped sleeves, falling stiff band over the armour, left hand on a table, pistol in his right hand, sash round him, short hair."

Derwydd, snug below the crest of a wooded hillslope in the parish of Llandybie, is remarkable for the fact that it has remained for over five hundred years in possession of the descendants of its medieval owners. Its original owners, a family of minor gentry, ended in the male line with Rhydderch ap Howell ap Bedo of Derwydd (living 1560). By his first wife, Margaret daughter of Owen Philipps of Cilsant, Rhydderch left an only child, Elizabeth, who married John Gwyn William of Piode in Llandybie parish. From this union, too, there was only one child, namely Sage, who married firstly, Edward Rice of Newton by whom she had no issue, and secondly Henry Vaughan a younger son of Walter Vaughan of Golden Grove.

After his marriage, Henry Vaughan settled at Derwydd, and added considerably to the estate by purchase of lands in Llandybie parish. A stout Royalist, he served as a Major General during the early part of the Civil War, and was knighted in 1643. He fought at the battle of Naseby in 1644, was captured and afterwards imprisoned in the Tower. He died in the year of the Restoration, and was succeeded by his son, Henry.

Henry Vaughan, born in 1613, married Elizabeth daughter of William Herbert of Tintern, Monmouthshire. He took a prominent part in public life and was knighted. He died on 26 December 1676, aged 63, and left Derwydd to his nephew Richard Vaughan of Cwrt Derllys near Carmarthen. Sir Henry had two children — John who died young, and Margaret who died unmarried in 1705.

Richard Vaughan who inherited Derwydd, was the elder son of John Vaughan of Court Derllys. Born in 1654, he trained for the law, became Recorder of Carmarthen, and in 1715 was appointed a Judge of Great Sessions. He had no issue by his wife Arabella, daughter of Sir Erasmus Philipps of Picton Castle, and on his death in 1724 left the Derwydd estate to his three nieces and coheirs, namely daughters of his brother John Vaughan.

Of these coheiresses only one left surviving issue. She was Elizabeth, the second daughter, who married Thomas Lloyd of Trehir who settled at Derwydd, and died in 1734. They had two children — Richard Vaughan Lloyd who died in 1729 aged 3 years, and Elizabeth Eleanora Lloyd (1725—1795) who became the sole heiress of Derwydd. Elizabeth Eleanora married Sir Thomas Stepney (d 1772) by whom she had two daughters, Elizabeth Bridgetta (1750—1780) who inherited Derwydd, and married Joseph Gulston (author of the notebooks) from whom the Stepney-Gulstons descend; and Maria Justina who married firstly, Francis Head, and secondly General Andrew Cowell from whom descend the Cowell-Stepneys and the Murray-Threiplands.

Gulston has not much to say about the portraits at Derwydd, and mentions only three. Either he did not complete the description, or the majority of the portraits were kept in Llanelly House, the main residence of the Stepneys at that time. This is all he had to say in 1783-5:-

MS 4. fo 17.

"Derwydd, at Lady Stepney's are these 3 Portraits -

  1. Mrs Vaughan, a heady12 in an oval, black hair.
  2. Lady Stepney, sitting. N.B. Mrs Head12 is very like this picture.
  3. Miss Stepney, when a child, W.L. sitting, miniature."

Edwinsford (Rhydodyn)
Edwinsford, in the parish of Llansawel, has been from medieval times the seat of a family descended from the Irish chieftain Ideo Wyllt, who, having entered Wales with a force to aid Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth (killed 1093), married a daughter of that prince, and settled at Edwinsford. Lewis Glyn Cothi composed poems of praise to the family of Rhydodyn who extended generous patronage to the bards. David ap Rhys William of Rhydodyn, died in 1613, was the first to adopt the surname Williams thereafter borne by his descendants.

I'm afraid Joseph Gulston is rickety on genealogy, and his statement below on the paternity of Mrs Hodgkinson is erroneous. The last of the Williamses of Edwinsford was Thomas, Custos Rotulorum of Carmarthenshire, son of Sir Rice Williams the High Sheriff of 1680. Thomas Williams married firstly Arabella Vaughan, one of the coheiresses of Derllys Court, who died without issue, and secondly Anne Singleton of London by whom he had a daughter, Arabella, who married Sir James Hamlyn of Clovelly Court, Devon, Baronet. Their son Sir James Hamlyn Williams, Baronet, took his mother's surname on her death in 1797, and from him descends the present owner, Sir James Williams-Drummond, Baronet, of Hawthornden.

It is believed that the house was entirely re-built about the beginning of the seventeenth century, and since that time many changes have been made, especially towards the middle of the last century when a new front was built, a wing added on the south side, and the dining room re-panelled with antique woodwork removed from the old house of Llether Cadfan which forms part of the estate. Very fine decorated ceilings, the work of Italian plasterers, dating from about 1620, have survived. Gulston, prejudiced against Welsh houses, considered it a "small bad house much in the same stile as all the houses in Wales, not worth seeing" (MS 1a, fo 33), but Fenton who saw it in 1809 thought differently and offered the following comments -

"Pass Edwinsford, an old Mansion, pretty large, lying low on the banks of the Cothy, which winds under the beautifully wooded Hill near it. There is a large walled Garden, a great part of which is of mud, said to be the best for fruit. To characterise the different farm Offices, there occur several well executed figures in lead painted, such as a large Pig near the Piggery, Hay makers near the Haggard, and at the Stables or Kennel an admirable fowler. Near the House are shewn 13 large trees planted the year Thos Williams Esqr of this House was Sheriff,13 by him and his 12 Javelin Men after their return from the Spring Assizes — A central tree with 12 others round it." (Tours in Wales, p 54).

Gulston left his impressions of the house and pictures as follows:-

MS 5 fos 22-23. Edwinsford. 1783.

"The seat of the late Sir Nicholas Williams, now Robert Banks Hodgkinson for the life of his wife, daughter of Sir Nicholas.14 This place is about nine miles from Landilo and has belonged to the family of Williams many years. The river Cothy runs near the house, which is called a good house for Wales; although it has not one tolerable room in it for the possessor of such an estate. Sir Nicholas15 built a banquetting house on the point of a hill about three miles distant, which was destroyed by Lightning Feby 8th 1772. N.B. it had a Spire. Here is a good kitchen garden.

Pictures in Edwinsford

  1. Henry 4th, done or stained in marble, small, in armour, sash across.
  2. Sir Nicholas Williams when a boy, dressed like a Trajedy Prince, with a figured petticoat.
  3. A Lawyer in a red gown, black scull cap, ruff, aetat 56 1644 (? putred) beard
    Quid fads iudcx vir, ora fugaciu pingis
    Aut novus aut nullus cras tibi vultus e a
  4. John Williams of Dolecothy Esqr. brother to Sir Nicholas Williams, sitting, long wig, table.
  5. The Lady of Sir Rice Williams,16 in blue and white Tulip in her hand, hair like bottle screws.
  6. Charles 2d, long wig, armour, cravat, ribbon.
  7. -11. And five unknown."

Golden Grove (Gelli Aur)
Golden Grove in the parish of Llanfihangel Aberbythych, home of the Vaughans, Earls of Carbery, remained in the hands of the family until 1804 when it was devised to Lord Cawdor whose present representative continues to own it.17 The first house, built in the 1560s, was destroyed by a disastrous fire in 1729. During the years 1754-1758 a new house arose from the ashes, whose dimensions and plan are known from surviving documents. It was abandoned about 1826 when a new Golden Grove was built on the hillside about a thousand yards to the west. The house which Gulston saw has completely disappeared and there are no remains above ground to indicate its site. When he called, the owner was John Vaughan, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum, who had married Letitia Jane Elizabeth daughter of Sir Cornwallis Maude, Baronet (later Viscount Hawarden and Baron Montalt).

Here are the pictures he saw:—

"Mr Vaughn's, about 2 mile from Llandilo, but a small house. it belonged to John Vaughan who was created Baron of Emlyn & Earl of Carbery in Ireland. You first come in a hall & then a dining room on one side & a drawing room on the other, dressing room, etc. All the Pictures are put into a Lumber Garret. Good Gardens."

In MS 1, fos 39-43. c 1783, he writes at greater length

"Golden Grove the seat of John Vaughan esqre, near Llandilo, Carmarthenshirc, South Wales. The present possessor having new furnished the house the following pictures are placed in the Garretts, Servants Room and Butler's pantry, much to his honour, credit, and taste.

Bridge North — Shropshire — Worcester — Welch Bridge — Shrewsbury — part of the old and new bridge at ditto — Dennewaur Castle — entrance into Chepstow Castle — West Gate of Cardiff — Castle of Cardiff from the West — inside view of Chepstow Castle looking eastward — Carew Castle. These drawings are all framed and glazed.

Dressing Room
  1. Old Lady Maud of Westmeath (sic), mother of the present Lord Montalt, sitting in black — very bad — hair, no Cap, plain comb'd hanging down behind.
  2. Mrs Vaughan (the present), sitting, in an oval, by Gardiner.
    Maid Servant's bed Chamber
  3. Miss Eliza Appleton, sitting — in red — basket of flowers in her lap.
  4. Sir William Vaughan, Knight, L.L.D. sitting in a great Chair, long black wig, gown, neckcloth — fine.
  5. Sir Roger Appleton, Bart, Lady Appleton and Master William, a child in his mother's lap, sitting, table between them, time of George 1st — this family came from Essex.
  6. John Lord Vaughan, a head, long hair, when young, red loose dress, cravat.
  7. Miss Dorothy Appleton, sitting, dove in her left hand.
  8. Mrs Vaughan, a head, long hair, straight dress. tradition says this was bought at an Auction & christened.
  9. Richard, Lord Vaughan, Baron of Emlyn, Baron of Mollingar and Earl of Carbery, President of Wales, &c, &c, &c. Privy Counsellor and Knight of the Bath. long hair, mustachios, black dress, red ribbon across, falling band, a round in a square. Very fine.
  10. Copy of the foregoing picture in a round.
  11. Ditto, a miniature of him, aged 51, 1657, by J.H.
    N.B. there are five miniatures in one frame.
  12. John, Lord Vaughan, Baron of Emlyn, Baron of Mollingar. and Earl of Carbery, Privy Counsellor, and Governor of Jamaica, to the knees, red loose dress, white sleeves, long wig, laced cravat, and ruffles, by Sir Peter Lely.
  13. Anne Dutchess of Bolton. sitting, daughter to the last Earl of Carbery. To the knees, black dog, hind legs on a Cushion, forelegs on her lap. daughter of [No 14].
  14. Anne, Countess of Carbery. sitting, below the knees, in yellow, naked neck, little dog in her lap, hands like Wissing.
  15. John, Lord Vaughan Comptroller of his Majesty's household, in white, to the knees, red mantle across, long wig, Cravat, by Sir Peter Lely. very fine.
  16. John, Lord Vaughan, Baron of Emlyn and Baron of Mollingar, Earl of Carbery. Privy Counsellor and Governor of Jamaica, one hand on the arm of the chair as Kit Cat Club the print of, yellow gown, immense long wig.
  17. Richard Vaughan Esqr (the late, when a Boy), W.L., a long robe a little spaniel, in a blue string, very bad.
  18. Richard, Lord Vaughan, Baron of Emlyn, Baron of Mollingar and Earl of Carbery, President of Wales &c &c &c. Privy Counsellor and Knight of the Bath. In black, Ribbon on, long hair, white sleeves, standing, left hand. This is a very fine portrait.
  19. Frances, Countess of Carbery. sitting, in brown, blue robe, light hair, hand, neck, and hands, beautiful, almost at whole length, by Lely. very fine.
  20. Miniature of ditto (one of the five in one frame) 1649. by JH.
  21. Lady Vaughan. sitting, in white Sattin, loose dress, blue robe, leaning, almost a whole length. Necklace and beads across her neck that fastens her dress. hands fine, by Wissing.
  22. Lady Vaughan. sitting, full front, purple gown, yellow robe, a rope of Pearl in her hands, yellow hair. Lely.
  23. Lady Artemia Vaughan. oblong, fine Landscape, light hair, fall in ringletts on her Neck, in a blue and white slash'd dress, flowers in her hand, down to the knees, very young.
  24. Sir Edward Vaughan, Knight Banneret. full front, brown loose dress, white sleeves, leaning, long Wig, laced Cravat, hands very fine. by Sir Peter Lely.
  25. John Vaughan, Esqr. of Golden Grove, in a loose red dress like a gown, long hair, laced Cravat and Ruffles, in an oval. date 1464 — a mistake.
    N.B. they had no picture of him so they painted this I suppose and put this date. The picture is of the latter part of the reign of Charles 2d.
  26. Lord Francis Vaughan, in a brown loose dress, white sleeves, long wig, half length, one hand, young.
  27. George Savile, Marquis of Halifax. great wig, a miniature in oils. as illustrious heads print.
  28. William Savile Marquis of Halifax, in a loose dress, long wig, Cravat, &c. oval.

    Bed Chamber
  29. Miss Sophia Vaughan, a head. temp George 1st. White sattin, blue mantle. very bad.
  30. Frances, Countess of Carbery, in an oval, in blue, mantle, curled ringlet hair. Earings.

    Butler's Pantry
  31. Richard Vaughan Esqr, in a round, brown coat, long wig, plain Cravat, hand on the hilt of his sword, a head.
  32. Mrs Vaughan, a head, white sattin dress, blue mantle.
  33. Anne, Countess of Carbery, in green sattin, red hair, head turned, hands fine. by Sir Peter Lely. beautiful.
  34. Frances, Countess of Carbery, sitting, white sattin, black hair, hands, almost a whole length.
  35. Anne Dutehess of Bolton, sitting, and leaning, in white sattin, blue mantle, flowers in her lap.
  36. Lady Frances Vaughan, a head, red loose dress, lined with ermine. oval."

The last Vaughan seems to have been somewhat off-hand in his attitude towards inherited portraits. Fortunately his successors, the Lords Cawdor, showed an entirely different spirit so that the portraits have been preserved and most of them still hang on the walls of Golden Grove where they can he enjoyed by those who visit that interesting house.

Newton (Dynevor)
Newton, now called Dynevor Park, stands on the plateau immediately west of the town of Llandeilo, and in the parish of Llandyfeisant, or Llandefeyson as it is called in the older records and still so pronounced locally. It stands near, or on, the site of Sir Rhys ap Thomas' mansion described in a State record of 1532, printed in Anc. Mon. Carms. p 110. The present mansion dates from about 1660, and apart from internal arrangements and towers at each of the four corners of the main structure, has remained substantially unaltered. In Anc. Mon. Carms. it is mistakenly said to date from 1856, an extraordinary error afterwards admitted by the Commissioners in private correspondence with the 7th Lord Dynevor.

The family of Rhys (Rice) have been connected with this place since their ancestor Gruffydd ap Nicholas was appointed Steward there in 1425. Built within the township called the New Town, the house continued to be known by that name until the 1780s, when the name Dynevor came into general use. The Welsh people in the vicinity still refer to it as Drenewydd.

When Mr Gulston called about 1782, the proprietor was George Talbot Rice son of the Rt Hon George Rice, (died 1779) and Baroness Dynevor, a peeress in her own right. Her father, the Earl Talbot had been created Baron Dynevor of Dynevor on 17 October 1780, with special remainder of that peerage to his only daughter Cecil Talbot who had married George Rice in 1756. She succeeded to the title in 1782, and on her death eleven years later, her son George Talbot Rice succeeded as 3rd Baron Dynevor. He died in 1852 at the age of 87.

Short biographies of most of the subjects of the portraits described below are given in The Complete Peerage (s.n. Dynevor, Talbot, and Shrewsbury) and in the peerage volumes of "Burke" and "Debrett."

Gulston writes of the portraits as follows:—

MS 1. fos 45-49. Newton (Dynevor) c 1783.

"Newton the Seat of Mr Rice is near this Town [Llandilo], and is without exception one of the finest inland places I ever saw; it is a great pity that the river Towy which winds most beautifully in the Vale has seldom water sufficient in it, in the Summer the Bed of the river being seldom covered till the end of October — the views of this place taken by Mr Bretherton are very like.

Eating Room
  1. Lord Chancellor Talbot. W.L. in his 'Chancellor's Robes, Seals, &c.
  2. Countess Talbot, wife of the late, W.L. in coronation robes.
  3. Over the door in a square, unknown, long wig, laced neck cloth, yellow mantle, pink & a strapped dress, in an oval.
  4. [ ] In an oval, long wig in a blue velvet tight dress with Gold (Frogs ?) loose mantle, Collar open.
  5. [ ] half length, Loose robe, long wig, neckcloth, leaning, hands fine.
  6. Talbot—Bishop in his robes of the Garter, sitting, over the Chimney, father of the Chancellor.
  7. Lady Talbot mother of the late Earl, and wife of the Chancellor, sitting, in white sattin, book in her lap, leaning on her arm, brown hair loose, to the knees.
  8. Mr Rymer, in a round, one hand. The people here think it very like, I cannot find the least resemblance. [This comment seems also to be applied to the preceding].
  9. John Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury. W.L. in black, from top to bottom, cap, Spanish cloak, stockings, shoes, &c. Ribbon round his neck, ruffles, ruff, black beard, gloves in his left hand, sword and belt both ornamented, the colouring of his picture is very red, which makes it appear to be a copy. he has a black beard.
  10. Earl Talbot, W.L. when young, in a yellow Vandyke dress, with a large hand, the attitude the same as Shakespear in Westminster Abbey. very bad.

    Library Small Room
    Are the Stirrups of Sir Rice ap Thomas. they are of Iron Gilt, with open at the bottom, which is very broad.

    Small Justice Room
    Are two old oaken Chairs, small, square, elbows, very plain, on the back are the Rice's arms empaled [sic] with the Garter, which also belonged to Sir Rice ap Thomas.

    In the Closet of a Bed Chamber
  11. Mr Edward Rice grandfather of the present, in a straight blue velvet coat, long wig, neckcloth, oval, very bad.
  12. Mrs Rice, wife of Mr Edward Rice, with her son and daughter. the son (the late Mr Rice) is in blue velvet, with gold frogs, a greyhound by him. this portrait altho executed when Mr Rice was but seven years old, is very like him. the girl has a red feather in her hair, bib and apron. very bad.
  13. Mrs Rice, mother of Sir Edward. of the Hobby family, sitting, leaning, crook and lambe.
  14. Mr. Edward Rice, together with his brother and sister, children, this is the very worst picture I ever saw. he is sitting in the centre, with a narrow scarf across — naked, little dog by him, the brother standing in the same undress. Miss in a yellow gown, tight. Amazing quizzes.
  15. Mr Griffith Rice, father of Mr Edward Rice, in a flower gown, long wig, laced neckcloth, little dog on a table.
  16. Catherine, Queen of Charles 2d. in the character of St Catherine with the wheel. drawing good. Like Huysman. in white sattin. like the print.
  17. Dutchess of Cleveland in a hat and feather, crook & lamb, &c, in yellow. a very bad copy.
  18. - 19. Two old bad green views of Dinnevir Castle in the Park which was destroyed by Oliver Cromwell, the keep was fitted up some years ago but destroyed by lightning. Some more bad family unknown Portraits in the same closet.

Lady Talbot was the daughter of the late Thomas Carbonnel Esqr formerly secretary to the Duke of Marlborough, she had a fortune of eighty thousand pounds which was laid out in the purchase of Barrington near Burton in Gloucestershire. Mr Kymer,18 a tenant of Mr Rice's who lived at Kidwelly in the County where he made a Canal to his Colliery. he was Attorney General for South Wales, and Steward of the Court of Marshalsea, Southwark, and the Court of his Majesty's Palace, Westminster. he left his fortune after the death of his sisters, to Mr Rice's second son.

Charles Talbot, Lord Talbot, Baron of Hensol, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, on the 14th Feby 1737 to the unspeakable loss of his Nation died . . . ."

In MS 1a. fo 34. 1785, Gulston comments further

"Newton. Mr Rice's. It is situated in one of the most beautiful Parks I ever saw. the Timber grows so fine. You come into a good Hall & then into a noble eating room & drawing room. There is Sir Rice ap Thomas's stirrups very curious & two Chairs of Henry 7th's time that cane out of Dinnover Castle the ruins of which are now standing upon a great rock with wood all down on one [side] & the river running in the bottom, which makes it very beautiful & romantic."

Perhaps the most intriguing of Gulston's descriptions concerns Taliaris in Llandeilofawr parish. This house, which received a substantial grant from the Historic Buildings Council some years ago, stands high on a slope some four miles northeast of the town of Llandeilo. Built in the form of a cube, the present structure dates from the seventeenth century, not least of its attractions being the scenes painted on panels in the dining room, said to have been executed by an Italian artist about the time of Charles II.

The original owners of Taliaris descended from a natural son of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, whose grandson, Rhydderch Gwyn gave the family its permanent surname. About the beginning of the eighteenth century the male line failed, and the estate passed to Richard Jones of Tregib, whose grandmother was Sibyl Gwynne of Taliaris. On inheriting he adopted the surname Gwynne, and his line ended in his grand-daughter, the heiress Elizabeth Gwynne (born about 1767) who married John William Hughes of Bwlchgwynt and Corngafar. J. W. Hughes then settled at Tregib, his wife's other estate, and from him descended the well-known family of Gwynne Hughes of that place.

Taliaris, which had been mortgaged by David Gwynne in 1768 for £12,000 to Sir John Wynne of Glynllivon in Caernarvonshire, afterwards passed out of the family and came into the possession of Lord Robert Seymour, and then of the Peels in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Joseph Gulston found much to occupy him in Taliaris. Perhaps the most interesting are the portraits of the members of the Sea Serjeants, an exclusive society in West Wales whose members were suspected of possessing Jacobite sympathies.19 The portraits had been painted by Robert Taylor during the presidency of Richard (Jones) Gwynne of Taliaris, and we learn from another source that they were moved to Tregib after the family sold Taliaris. Gulston writes about Taliaris as follows:

MS in. fo 33a. Taliaris. 1785.

"The late Mr Gwinne who was president of the Sea Sargents Club, a Society who met once a year for a week. they wore a star on there (sic) left side. The Hall is hung round with the pictures of all the members namely

Mr Gwinne, President Mr Warren
Sir Edward Manscl Mr Barlow
Morgan Lloyd Governor Rogers
Old Mr Gwinne George Symmonds
Young Mr Gwinne Capt John Morgan
Sir John Phillipps Mr Vaughn
John Symmonds Mansel Langdon
Wm Skyrme Mr Bowen
Dr Roger Phillipps Mr Tom Popkins
Sir Thomas Stepney David Rice Gwinne
Dr Philipps, DD. CC OX Rawley Mansel
George Noble Mr Hitchins
Mr Parry Mr Lewis
Mr Williams  

In MS 3. fo 65. 1783, he describes the portraits in detail -

"Taliaris. The seat of David Gwynne, Esq, near Llandilo, Carmarthenshire. A beautiful situation with a most rich and extensive prospect.

Breakfast parlour
1. Charles 1st, in armour, long beard, a head.
2. Lady, unknown.

Drawing room
3. Mr John Symmons of Llanstynnan in the County of Pembroke, Esq. in lawn coloured velvet, gold lace, white sattin waistcoat, wig, neckcloth — a head — father of the present who married the Widow Barlow.
4. Sir Edward Mansel of Trimsarran in the County of Carmarthen sitting, full dress'd, in brown gold lace, sleeve above the elbow; embroidered waistcoat, Tye Wig, colour in the hands gone.
5. Captn William Gwynne, in a yellow mantle, hand on a table, book, white hair, beard, landscape, temp Charles 2d, bad. [died some time before July 1688].
6. Mr Pytts of Thyre in Worcestershire, near Tenbury. In blue and gold, white sattin waistcoat, hat under his arm, oval, by Taylor.
7. Counsellor Lloyd of Cwmgwily, sitting in a great chair, immense white wig, lawyer's gown, very large band, roll in his right hand, table, books, etc. [Griffith Lloyd, barrister. d. 1713].
8. David Gwynne Esq, in a brown mantle, neckcloth, large wig, in a round. Gave Taliaris to the President. [David Gwynne. d. 1721].
9. Rowland Gwynne, Esq, in a large loose dress, laced cravat, brother of the foregoing.

10. Rawley Mansell, esq. W.L.

11. Lady Rudd — over the chimney — half length. [Probably Beatrice Barlow, 2nd wife of Sir Anthony Rudd of Capel Evan, Bart].

Bedchamber Bedlam
12. - 14. Mrs Harris (when Miss Gwynne), Mr Richard Gwynne, Mr Morgan Gwynne — drawn when about 12 years old, postures, by Lewis a painter in London. [children of Richard Jones Gwynne, Taliaris].
15. - 16. Mr and Mrs Gwynne, in blue velvet, dark laced waistcoat, two ovals, by Lewis. 17. Mr Howell Gwynne of Garth, white coat, red waistcoat line with blue. lapells, brown wig. By Taylor. a head. see farther on. [son of Marmaduke Gwynne by Sarah Evans of Peterwell].

Is furnished round with the Pictures of the Society called Sea Serjeants. This Society was instituted before 1730 — it consisted of a President, Chaplain, Treasurer or Secretary, 24 Serjeants, and Probationers, from whom they elected to supply the 24 in case of death. They spent annually a week in some sea port of Pembroke, Carmarthen, Cardigan & Glamorgan. They of late years chose a Lady Patroness who presided at their Ball. The Serjeants wore a Star, with a Dolphin on the left side, and the Probationers on the right. The first President was Mr Barlow; secondly Mr Gwynne — on his death Sir John Philips 1754 or 5 was the last meeting, at Swansea. When Mr Gwynne was President, Taylor the painter was employed to draw all their portraits, which were executed in 1748, and are as follows -

18. Mr Richard Gwynne, President. sitting in an elbow chair, red velvet, hands, wig, etc. Married a sister oif Sir John Rudd (died 15th June 1739), by whom he got the Forest Estate in the County of Carmarthen, her brother dying without issue. He died 1751. [Richard Jones of Tregib, who took the name Gwynne on succeeding to Taliaris in 1721. IIe died in 1752].
19. Sir Edward Mansell of Trimsarran, in red velvet trimm'd with a broad gold lace, full dress'd coat. He married first a woman who lived with a Jew in London; second Miss Price of Gorllwyn; third wife, a Lady of London, an Irish girl, she married Coll. St Ledger after Sir Ed'ds death in 1754.
20. Morgan Lloyd Esq of Glansevin. He married Miss Lloyd of Wern, in Cardiganshire. died 1777. Glansevin is near Langaddock, Carmarthenshire. In green velvet, in an oval.
21. John Symonds of Llanstynnan Esq, in the County of Pembroke. in blue velvet, gold button hole, wig, round. John Symonds married Miss Philips of Haverfordwest; died 1758 [ recte 1764].
22. Thomas Gwynne Esq of Gwempa, in a snuff coloured velvet coat, gold button hole, blue waistcoat with a very broad lace, oval. He married Miss Eliz Middleton of Middleton Hall in the county of Carmarthen. 1750 died.
23. Richard Gwynne Esqr of Gwempa, son of the foregoing, in a gray goat with a broad escalloped silver lace, buff waistcoat laced, the coat buttoned across, a silver laced Hat under his arm, oval. He married a daughter of General Fuller's. died 1778.
24. Sir John Philips, Bart, of Picton Castle, Pembrokeshire. In blue velvet, gold button hole, red waistcoat, undressed wig, in an oval. He married Miss Sheppard. died 1761 [ recte 1764].
25. William Skyrm Esqr of Vainor in Pembrokeshire. In blue lined with red, laced like an Admiral, red laced waistcoat, oval. He married Miss Hughes, an heiress of Laugharne, in Carmarthenshire. died 1762.
26. William Warren Esqr of Langridge in Pembrokeshire. married [Jane Skyrme] by whom he had four daughters, coheiresses who married 1. Jones of Lanina in Cardiganshire, 2. Sir Robert Keith, Governor of Jamaica, 3. Lord Kensington of Johnson in Pembrokeshire, 4. Williams of Popehill, Pembrokeshire. Mr. Warren is in brown, gold button hole, red waistcoat with a large broad gold lace. oval. died 1756.
27. George Barlow of Slebech in Pembrokeshire, Esq, in a white coat with an ermine collar and ermined waistcoat, round brown wig, oval. He married a Miss Blundel, a dancing master's daughter, by whom he had an only daughter who first married Mr Symonds of Llanstynnan. Mr Barlow died 1756 [ recte 1757].
28. Anthony Rogers Esqr, Governor of SenaGambia for the Company. in brown velvet red waistcoat, broad gold lace, white wig. oval. lived at Carmarthen. He married Miss Lewis of Torrycoed. died 1758. [Mayor of Carmarthen 1746].
29. George Symmonds Esqr, of Llanstynnan in Pembrokeshire, younger brother of John. In a brown coat, gold button hole, blue velvet waistcoat, brown wig. died a batchelor 1756.
30. John Morgan Esqr. an officer in the Army. of Upland in Carmarthenshire. In a blue velvet coat trimmed with a musquetier gold lace, red waistcoat laved, white wig, hat under his arm. oval. He died a batchclor 1755.
31. Erasmus Vaughan of Trecombe in Pembrokeshire, Esqre, In brown velvet, white sattin waistcoat, grey wig, oval. died a batchelor 1763 [_recte_ 1775].
32. Mansel Langdon Esgre of Carmarthen. In blue velvet coat with a gold button hole and narrow lace, laced red waistcoat, black wig. Married Mrs Bevan of Glasfryn, a widow, and sister and coheiress of Governor Rogers's wife — Miss Lewis. died 1760 [ recte 1759], his lady who married on his death Revd Griffith Havard.
33. Mr Bowen of Upton, Pembrokeshire, In brown velvet white stattin waistcoat, brown wig, oval. He married Miss Knowles of Wenallt in Pembrokeshire, an heiress. died 1760 [ recte 1758].
34. Dr Roger Philips, a Physician at Carmarthen. In red velvet with a gold button hole and narrow lace, laced red waistcoat, white wig, oval, full front. He married Mrs Hughes, a widow, of Laugharne, Carmarthenshire. died 1760.
35. David Gwynne, Esq, son of the President. When young, in white, brown hair, blue waistcoat with a broad silver lace, hat under his arm. oval. He married Miss Vaughan of Nanny [Corsygedol] in Merionethshire. died 1775 [with-out issue].
36. Thomas Popkin Esq of Forest in Glamorganshire. In brown velvet, gray waistcoat, with a broad gold lace, bag wig. He married Justina daughter of Sir John Stepney, on whose death he married Miss Gordon. died 1769.
37. Sir Thomas Stepney, Llanelly, Carmarthenshire. In an olive green velvet coat, red waistcoat with a broad musquetier gold lace, brown hair, neckcloth. Oval. He married Miss Lloyd of Derrwyth. died 1772.
38. Dr Philips, a Divine, of Colby, Pembrokeshire. In a gown and cassock. He married the Widow Portreeve of Yniscedwin, Glamorganshire. She was sister of Dr Powell of Nanteos, Cardiganshire. 1784. [Dr James Philipps died at Nanteos in 1783, his wife Elizabeth died in 1793].
39. Revd Mr Le Hunt of Jesus College, Oxford. Had an estate in Pembrokeshire. In his gown and cassock. died a batchelor 1755 [William Le Hunt, 4th son of George Le Hunt of Haverfordwest and Alice Leger].
40. Rawley Mansel Esqr of Limestone Hill, Carmarthenshire. In brown velvet, ermined waistcoat, large wig. Oval. He married Miss Williams of Corngavor. died 1750.
41. George Noble, a Wine Merchant of Swansea, Glamorganshire. A remarkable jolly fellow in blue velvet with a pink waistcoat, wig, one hand. Oval. died 1749.
42. James Lewis, Esq of Gettledowick [Gellidywyll] in Pernbrokeshire. In red velvet, gold edging, blue waistcoat, wig. He married first, Vaughan of Yscervaughan in Brecknockshire, secondly Miss Symmonds of Llanstynnan. died 1745 [ recte 1750].
43. John Williams Esqr of Congafer, Carmarthenshire. In an ash coloured coat, gold brocaded waistcoat, wig, neckcloth. He married a Miss Harris of Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. died 1748. [ recte 1747. This portrait came into the possession of the late Sir Grismond Philipps, and now hangs in the dining room at Cwmgwili].
44. David Parry of Noyadd, Cardiganshire, Esqr. In an ash coloured velvet, blue embroidered waistcoat, laced frill, long wig. He married a Miss Webly. Mr Parry died abroad, David Gwynne was chose in his stead.
45. Mr Hitchins, a Probationer. Of Bristol. lived and died at Llandebyea 1780. In a blue ermin'd waistcoat with the cape to it over his coat which has no cape, wig, etc. His star is on the right side. A jolly fellow.
46. Robert Taylor, the painter, who executed all the foregoing pictures [i.e. Nos 13 onward]. In a loose dress, a post crayon in his hand, wig, etc. This is the best portrait in the room, and Sir John Philips's is the next best.

This Society were all Gentlemen in the country Interest. N.B. Mr Gwynne the President's name was Jones, he lived at Tregibe, but changed his name for the Taliaris estate. Mr. Howell Gwynne of Garth married the widow of Sir John Rudd, who was the widow of John Powell of Pennybank and daughter of Sir Thomas Powell of Broadway near Laugharne, Carmarthenshire, which John Powell was the father of Lady Anne Hamilton, Sir Thomas Powell had three daughters coheiresses, Lady Rudd, Lady Price wife of Sir John Price, Montgomeryshire, (and) Mrs Cornwal wife of Velters Cornwall in Herefordshire.

Mr Richd Gwynne married Miss Catherine Garnons of Rhiwgoch, by whom he had issue one daughter the heiress of his family, as his two brothers had none."

He returns to the house again in MS 4. fo 12. c 1783, and says -

"At the late Mr Gwynne's of Taliaris, near Landilo, Carmarthenshire, South Wales, is a picture of the late Sir Thomas Stepney, son of Sir John the foregoing man, in an olive green velvet coat, red waistcoat with a broad musqueteer gold late on it, brown (wig or) hair, neckcloth: in oval painted by Taylor being one of the Society of Sea Sarjeants, with a small star on the left side. Mr Thomas Popkin of Glamorganshire who married Sir Thomas sister is another Serjeant, he is dressed in brown velvet, grey waistcoat with a broad gold lace, bag wig, painted by Taylor." On folio 18 he offers a further comment — "Sir Thomas Stepney father of the present Sir John was one of the Society of Sea Sarjeants, which society had all their pictures painted by Taylor, and are still to be seen at Mr Gwynne's at Taliaris in the County of Carmarthen. he is in an olive green velvet coat, red waistcoat with a broad musqueteer lace, brown wig, neckcloth, oval. he was husband of Lady Stepney daughter of the above Mrs Vaughan for whom the above epitaph was wrote in Llandybie church."

So much for Gulston's account of the portraits at Taliaris in 1783-5. Within six years of his visit the portraits of the Sea Serjeants were moved to Tregib, and we are fortunate to possess a description by another visitor who noted them. She was a Mrs Mary Morgan, and an account of her visit on 13 October 1791 appears on pages 370-376 of A Tour of Milford Haven in the year 1791, London, 1795, as follows:-

. . . drove to Tregib, which I long had a curiosity to visit, it being famous for its antiquity, and likewise for its having belonged to the president of the Sea Serjeants . . . when we arrived at Tregib, we were welcomed in the most hospitable manner by the Lady President, who was then sitting at the head of her table, in a fine old hall, which was entirely surrounded with the portraits of the former members of the society of Sea Serjeants, twenty-six in number. Mr Gwynne, her brother, was drawn as president, in his chair of state. There is also a picture of the chaplain to this community, and of the painter who drew them all; he having desired that he might add his own to the collection. There was something exceedingly striking in this venerable groupe, and the antiquity of the place which they occupied . . . Notwithstanding this lady sat, it may be said, in the midst of her dead friends, she preserved a wonderful degree of cheerfulness; nor did the vanity of the sex prompt her to dwell upon any one circumstance, in which she shone the most conspicuous of the throng that graced their galas. At the table was the young lady, who procured us the sight of this once famous house, and likewise another, the last of the President's descendants, in whom centres a large fortune, and who had just given her hand to the man of her heart. To complete the pleasures of this day, they had borrowed a fine treble harp from Golden Grove. As I had never heard a treble harp before, I was quite in raptures, and thought it the most charming instrument that ever was played upon . . . ."

There is a gothic touch about this lady sitting "in the midst of her dead friends," which the late Isak Dinesen would have appreciated.

We now come to Tregib which also finds a place in Mr Gulston's notebooks. This house stands amidst a fine grove of trees on low ground about a mile to the east of Llandeilo. From the fifteenth century until a few decades ago Tregib had been owned by the descendants of Sir Elidir Ddu, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, of Crug near Llandeilo. The first of the family to live at Tregib was the knight's great-grandson Thomas ap Gwilym, and his Elizabethan descendant, Morgan ap John, adopted the permanent surname of Jones. On inheriting the Taliaris estate in 1721 Richard Jones took the surname Gwynne under the terms of the will of his great-uncle as mentioned on page 00 above. The family ended in an heiress, Elizabeth Gwynne (d 1832) who married John William Hughes (d 1825) who settled at this wife's home, and from them descends the Gwynne-Hughes family.

Although the house has been subjected to extensive changes over the years, particularly in late Victorian times, some earlier features have survived, notably the vaulted cellars of the mansion which, it is believed, belong to the fifteenth century, and a small panelled room with a fine overmantle done in plaster above the fireplace, bearing a shield of five quarterings, the date 1657 and the initials of Francis Jones of Tregib who had been High Sheriff ten years previously.

When Gulston called at Tregib about 1783, he says it was the house of a Mr Lewis. This is probably a slip, for the owner at that time was Miss Elizabeth Gwynne whose acquaintance we made in the section on Taliaris. Although he does not describe any pictures, I think it proper to include the house particularly as it became the repository of the old portraits from Taliaris.

This is what Gulston says —

MS3. fo 61.

"Tregib near Llandilo, Carmarthenshire, South Wales. The seat of Mr Lewis. A small bad house. In the Hall are three remarkable old Chairs, very large, each different from the other. They are made of Oak, ru . . d Posts, before and behind. The Arms have rails slopeing from the back downwards to the front. Profile: [here follows a small sketch of a chair] supposed to be very old. One of them is triangular. Sideboard of Oak, with Vases etc. These Chairs are very curious and are well worth seeing. These Chairs were turned by Jones 1651. New part of the house built 1651."
Mrs Morgan, who, as we have noted earlier, called there in 1791, also admired the chairs, and comments
The furniture is entirely of a piece with the building, particularly two large wooden armchairs; they are ornamented in a very singular manner, with rings cut out of the solid wood, which turn round those parts of the chairs upon which they hang; being a great many of them, they make, when moved a slight jingling noise. The date of these chairs cannot be ascertained; nor can that of the house, the new part of which was built in the year 1657." (Tour, p 374).

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